Environmental Standards Related to Air Pollution
and Methods of Regulation against Air Pollutants

Environmental Standards Related to Air Pollution

(1969 Notification No.25 from the Environment Agency, 1978 Notification No.38 from the Environment Agency, 1997 Notification No.4 from the Environment Agency, and 1999 Notification 68 from the Environment Agency)

Name of substance Environmental condition Measurement method
Sulfur dioxide Daily average for 1-hour values shall be 0.04 ppm or lower and each 1-hour value 0.1 ppm or lower. Solution conductivity technique or ultraviolet fluorescence method
Suspended particulate matters Daily average for 1-hour values shall be 0.10 mg/m3 or lower and each 1-hour value 0.20 mg/m3 or lower. Mass concentration measurement method using filtration collection or light scattering method which can deliver a quantity with linear relationship to the mass concentration measured by the former method, piezo balance method or beta-ray absorption method
Carbon monoxide Daily average for 1-hour values shall be 10 ppm or lower and each 1-hour value 20 ppm or lower. Method using nondispersive infrared analyzer
Nitrogen dioxide Daily average for 1-hour values shall be between 0.04 and 0.06 ppm or lower. Absorption spectrophotometry using Saltzman reagents or chemiluminescence method using ozone
Photochemical oxidants 1-hour value shall be 0.06 ppm or lower. Absorption spectrophotometry using neutral potassium iodide solution, coulometric method, ultraviolet absorption spectrometry or chemiluminescence method using ethylene
Benzene 1-year average value shall be 0.003 mg/m3 or lower. Measurement method on samples collected in a canister or sampling tube using a gas chromatography mass spectrometer, or a method considered to deliver performance equivalent or better than this
Trichloroethylene 1-year average value shall be 0.2 mg/m3 or lower. Same as above
Tetrachloroethlene 1-year average value shall be 0.2 mg/m3 or lower. Same as above
Dichloromethane 1-year average value shall be 0.15 mg/m3 or lower. Same as above
Dioxins 1-year average value shall be 0.6 pg-TEQ/m3 or lower. Method to measure the sample collected by an air sampler attaching the collection tube equipped with polyurethane foam at a stage later than the filter, using a high-resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometer

1 Suspended particulate matters refer to particulate matters that are airborne with particle diameters 10 microns or smaller.

2 Photochemical oxidants refer to oxidizing substances generated by photochemical reaction with ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate and so forth (only those that releases iodine from neutral potassium iodide solution, and nitrogen dioxide is excluded).

Evaluation Methods

There are substances required of short-term evaluation and those required of long-term evaluation as methods of air pollution evaluation based on environmental standards (environmental standards satisfaction status). Both short-term evaluation and long-term evaluation are specified for sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matters, and carbon monoxide, and long-term evaluation for nitrogen dioxide. Photochemical oxidants are evaluated based on environmental standard values.

Methods of Regulation on Air Pollutants Emitted From Factories and Workplaces and Their Outline

  Name of substance Main form of generation, etc. Regulation method and outline
Soot and smoke Sulfur oxides (SOx) Combustion of fuel, ores and so forth in boilers and waste incinerators 1) Regulation value (quantity) set up depending on the value of coefficient K specified for each outlet height (He) and region
Acceptable amount of emission (Nm3/h) = K x 10-3 x He2
General emission standard: K = 3.0 - 17.5
Special emission standard: K = 1.17 - 2.34
2) Fuel usage standard for each season
Sulfur content in fuel set up for each region
Sulfur content ratio: 0.5 - 1.2% or lower
3) Total quantity regulation

Set up for each region or plant based on total quantity reduction plan

Dust and soot Same as above and use of electric furnace Emission standard (concentration) for each facility/scale
General emission standard: 0.04 - 0.7 g/Nm3 Special emission standard: 0.03 - 0.2 g/Nm3
Hazardous substances Cadmium (Cd), cadmium compounds Combustion or chemical treatment in copper, zinc and lead refining facilities Emission standard for each facility 1.0 mg/Nm3
Chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) Combustion or chemical treatment in chemical product reaction facility, waste incinerator, etc. Emission standard for each facility
Chlorine: 30 mg/Nm3 Hydrogen chloride: 80 - 700 mg/Nm3
Fluorine (F), hydrogen fluoride (HF), etc. Combustion or chemical treatment in electrolytic furnaces for aluminum refining, melting furnaces for glass production, etc. Emission standard for each facility 1.0 - 20 mg/Nm3
Lead (Pb), lead compounds Combustion or chemical treatment in copper, zinc and lead refining facilities, etc. Emission standard for each facility 10 - 30 mg/Nm3
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Combustion, synthesis, decomposition, etc. in boilers, waste incinerators, etc. Emission standard (concentration) for each facility/scale
New: 60 - 400 ppm
Existing: 130 - 600 ppm
2) Total quantity for existing

Set up for each region or factory based on total quantity reduction plan

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) The following facilities that emit VOCs*1 Drying facilities, spray painting facilities, cleaning facilities and storage tanks for chemical product manufacture/painting/adhesion/ printing Emission standard for each facility 400 - 60,000 ppmC
Dust General dust Pulverization, selection, mechanical processing or accumulation of ores, soil and so forth in sieves, accumulation grounds, etc. Standards on facility structure, use and management Installation of dust collector, dust prevention covers, and hood, water spraying, etc.
Specified dust (asbestos) Pulverization, mixing and other mechanical processings of asbestos by cutters, etc. Standard at boundary to workplace premises Concentration of 10 pieces/L
Demolishment, reconstruction, or collection of buildings using sprayed-on asbestos Standards on removal, enclosure, containment work during building demolishment
Specified substances (28 substances including ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, etc.) Generated in case of accidents such as failure and damage in specified facilities Specification of measures in case of accidents Duty to restore the workplace, notification to prefectural governor, etc.
Hazardous air pollutants*2   234 substances (groups), 22 of which are specified as “priority substances considering measures to be taken” Specification of responsibilities of each local government including accumulation of findings Voluntary measures such as emission suppression by businesses and citizens, enhancement of scientific findings for the country, grasping the pollution levels by businesses, etc.
Designated substances Benzene Benzene drying facilities, etc. Suppression standard for each facility/scale
New: 50 - 600 mg/Nm3 Existing: 100 - 1500 mg/Nm3
Trichloroethylene Cleaning facilities, etc. using trichloroethylene Suppression standard for each facility/scale
New: 150 - 300 mg/Nm3 Existing: 300 - 500 mg/Nm3
Tetrachloroethylene Dry cleaning machines, etc. using tetrachloroethylene Suppression standard for each facility/scale
New: 150 - 300 mg/Nm3 Existing: 300 - 1500 mg/Nm3

*1) Reference: Facilities subjected to regulations of volatile organic compounds, Air Pollution Control Law

*2) Substances concerned about health effects by continuous intake even in low concentrations

* The above standards need to be reviewed as necessary based on the changes in air pollution, effects of measures, changes in industrial structure or air pollution sources, development and popularization of countermeasure technologies and so forth.

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