Evaluation of Magnetic Materials
Outline of Evaluation of Magnetic Materials
From the viewpoint of magnetic characteristics, all materials including metals can be broadly divided into ferromagnetic materials and non-magnetic materials. Ferromagnetic materials are substances that easily hold magnetism, and can be classified into two types, soft magnetic materials like iron and nickel, and hard magnetic materials, which become permanent magnets.
Focusing on the magnetic characteristics of materials, JFE-TEC performs the measurements and evaluations that are necessary in research, development and design of soft magnetic materials (electrical steel sheets, iron powder) and permanent magnets, as well as motors, transformers and other equipment utilizing electromagnetism, which are applications of those materials.
Services Provided by JFE-TEC
JFE-TEC performs various types of test and evaluation services on commission. Our services span magnetic measurement/evaluation of the base materials/use materials, investigation/evaluation of the magnetic characteristics of equipment applying electromagnetism, including high efficiency motors, and tests/evaluations of electrical steel sheets.
Magnetic Evaluation of Materials
JFE-TEC can perform measurement/evaluation of the magnetic characteristics of soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials (permanent magnet materials) and non-magnetic materials.
- Soft Magnetic Materials
We can provide diverse types of testing and evaluation services, from measurement of magnetic characteristics in accordance with JIS standards to measurements under high magnetic fields, high frequency and stress.
Examples of soft magnetic materials
- Electrical steel sheets
- Iron powder
- Soft ferrite
- Soft iron
- Hard Magnetic Materials (Permanent Magnet Materials)
A wide range of services are available, from evaluation of the basic properties of permanent magnets such as rare earth magnets, ferrite magnets, etc. to evaluation of the magnetic characteristics of actual components and physical analysis in the nano region.
Examples of Permanent Magnet Materials
- Rare earth magnets (neodymium magnets,
samarium-cobalt magnets, etc.)
- Ferrite magnets
- Alnico magnets
- Rare earth magnets (neodymium magnets,
- Non-Magnetic Materials
- For non-magnetic magnetic materials and materials that display weak magnetism, such as new materials, powders, thin films, etc., please consult with JFE-TEC.
Evaluation of Magnetic Characteristics of Equipment Utilizing Electromagnetism
JFE-TEC performs measurements and evaluations of equipment which utilizes electromagnetism, such as motors, transformers, inductors, etc. in which magnetic materials are applied. Measurement/evaluation can be performed with both actual equipment and models.
For example, micro-region magnetic measurement of the tooth part/part around caulking of motor cores, area around connections in transformer cores, etc. is possible. Visualization of magnetic characteristics in the actual machine condition is possible.
Examples of Equipment Utilizing Electromagnetism
Grade Investigation of Electrical Steel Sheets
- JFE-TEC can estimate the grade of electrical steel sheets based on various material properties, beginning with magnetic characteristics.
JFE-TEC estimates the JIS-equivalent grade based on a series of investigations that includes disassembly of the product, measurement of magnetic characteristics and hardness, chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis, etc. JFE-TEC's services cover the full range of equipment from large-scale motors for power generation to small-scale motors for household use.
We can also provide support for improvement of motor performance, such as identification of the grade of materials used in motors, benchmarking from the viewpoint of the materials used, etc.
- Chemical composition: carbon (C), silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), aluminum (Al), etc.
- Surface hardness measurement
- Magnetic measurements: Iron loss, B-H characteristics
- Microstructural observation
- Measurement of electrical resistivity of base material
- Measurement of interlayer resistance
- Measurement of film thickness
- Tensile test, etc.
Examples of Materials Evaluated
- Cold-rolled non-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet (JIS C 2552)
- Cold-rolled grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet (JIS C 2553)
Available Measurement/Evaluation Services: Contents and Technologies
The following magnetic measurement/evaluation services are possible, for objects from various magnetic materials to equipment utilizing electromagnetism. For the specimen shape/dimensions and test conditions such as high magnetic field, high frequency, high temperature, stress, etc., please feel free to contact JFE-TEC!
|Soft magnetic materials||Electrical steel sheets
|Core loss, hysteresis curves (J-H curve, B-H curve), permeability, minor loop||DC, AC magnetization characteristics test device|
|Stress load SST testing device|
|DC B-H curve, relative permeability||High magnetic field testing frame|
|Core loss, complex permeability, inductance, impedance||B-H analyzer (high frequency)|
|Hard magnetic materials||Rare earth magnets
Various types of magnets
|Demagnetization curve, residual magnetic flux density Br, coercivity Hcj, Hbc, maximum energy product, surface inductive flux||Electromagnet type B-H tracer
|Output during load test, efficiency, torque||Model motor characteristics testing device|
|Surface inductive flux, spatial distribution of magnetic field intensity||Local magnetic characteristics visualization device
(magnet analyzer mode)
|Local region magnetic flux density, magnetic field intensity, core loss||Local magnetic characteristics visualization device
(local magnetism sensor mode)
|Transformers||Transformers||Local region magnetic flux density, magnetic field intensity, core loss||Local magnetic characteristics visualization device
(local magnetism sensor mode)
|Magnetostriction measurement, magnetostriction high frequency analysis of transformer materials||Laser doppler magnetostriction measurement device|
|Others||Tensile strength, hardness, composition analysis, microstructural observation, grain orientation, etc.|
Processing, Various Physical Testing and Material Testing of Magnetic Materials
In addition to measurement and evaluation of magnetic characteristics, JFE-TEC can also perform a wide range of other services, such as composition analysis, physical analysis, evaluation of materials (material tests, welding tests, corrosion tests, nondestructive examination, etc.) as well as simulations by numerical analysis.
Element Technologies of Magnetic Material Evaluation Solutions
We provide the optimum solution for each client!
Observation by EBSD, Cs-corrected STEM, etc.
Hydrogen analysis, and elemental analysis by ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), etc.
Analysis by infrared camera, etc.
Numerical analysis (CAE)
Evaluation ofmotor characteristics by numerical analysis, etc.
Corrosion resistance evaluation
Corrosion tests, etc.
Fatigue tests, tensile tests, bending tests, hardness tests, etc.